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By David Nutt & Liam J. Nestor & Liam Nestor

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Copyright (2011), with permission from Elsevier. 3 Alcohol use as a disabling brain condition. The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. This study shows that alcohol was one of the four most disabling single conditions, along with depression, dementias, and stroke. Drug use disorders were also prevalent. Reprinted from Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, 21(9), Wittchen, H. , et al. The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the 35 brain in Europe 2010, 655–679, Copyright (2011), with permission from Elsevier.

The ACG also receives dopamine projections from the midbrain VTA via the mesocortical pathway. In addition to its role in motivation and drive (described above in Motivation and drive), the OFC plays a key role in cognitive control processes. As part of the ventro-lateral PFC (VLPFC), it is involved in impulse control and monitoring 62 ongoing behaviour. The VLPFC plays a significant key role in reversal learning. Reversal learning is the ability to alter behaviour when reinforcement contingencies change.

The increased risk of death from drug overdose is associated with poverty, homelessness and polysubstance use, impaired physical health, depression, and a previous history of drug overdose. Illicit drug users are also known to have higher rates of completed and attempted suicide compared to the general population. This is associated with psychopathology, family dysfunction, social isolation, and polydrug use. 7 Alcohol tops drug harms to others in the UK. Drugs ordered by their overall harm scores, showing the separate contributions to the overall scores of harms to users and harm to others.

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Addiction by David Nutt & Liam J. Nestor & Liam Nestor

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