By Gerard Chaliand, B Davidson
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Additional resources for Armed Struggle in Africa: With the Guerrillas in "Portuguese" Guinea
The chair complained that they were wasting too much time on this point. Pakistan countered that it was trying to compromise but that it already had other deadlines it had not met. JUSCANZ, a coalition of Japan, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, supported Namibia's request for a firm date. " Namibia objected, saying there was not consensus and the chair had overridden them and given Pakistan its way. " It states that governments should take action to "Create and maintain a non-discriminatory and gender-sensitive legal environment by reviewing legislation with a view to striving to remove discriminatory provisions as soon as possible, preferably by 2005, and eliminating legislative gaps that leave women and girls without protection of their rights and without effective recourse against gender-based discrimination" (AIRES/S-23/3: 21, par.
Although it has no binding force, this declaration does have the moral force ofworld consensus (Coomaraswamy and Kios 1999: 182). It is a comprehensive document that defines violence against women broadly to include physical, sexual, and psychological harm or threats ofharm in public or private life (Article I). It names gender-based violence as a violation of human rights and as an instance of sex discrimination and inequality (Connors 1996: 27-28). '"fhe declaration attributes the roots of gender violence to historically unequal power relations between men and women, arguing that it is socially constructed and historically justified rather than natural (Coomaraswamy and Kios 1999: 183).
States that fail to protect their members from violence in a discriminatory way violate their responsibilities toward these members (Bunch 1990; Thomas and Beasley 1993; Romany 1994). They have not exercised sufficient effort - due diligence - in protecting them. If assault or murder is prosecuted less avidly when it occurs against women in intimate relationships than under other circumstances, a state has discriminated on the basis ofgender. The committee charged with enforcing CEDAW asserts that violence against women is a form of discrimination, defining gender-based violence as "a form of discrimination which seriously inhibits women's ability to enjoy rights and freedoms on a basis ofequality with men" (CEDAW General Recommendation 19, n.
Armed Struggle in Africa: With the Guerrillas in "Portuguese" Guinea by Gerard Chaliand, B Davidson