By Angus Maddison
This e-book used to be first released in 1971.
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Additional info for Asia: Class Structure and Economic Growth: India and Pakistan Since the Moghuls
B. ), Report on the Population Estimates of Inda, (1820-30), Census of India 1961, Government of India, Registrar General, Delhi, 1963, pp. 4-5. 8 See Census of India 1911, Vol. I, India, Part II, Tables, Calcutta, 1913, pp. 374-6. The total population of all India (including native states) was 313 million and the total labour force 149 million. It is interesting to note that the European population of India was of relatively much lower importance than in Indonesia, where there were 81,000 Europeans in a population of 38 million in 1905: see J.
THE MOGHUL ECONOMY AND SOCIETY exclusive groups whose economic and social functions are clearly defined and hereditary. Old religious texts classify Hindus into four main groups: brahmins, a caste of priests at the top of the social scale whose ceremonial purity was not to be polluted by manual labour; next in priority came the kshatriyas or warriors, thirdly the vaishyas or traders, and finally the sudras, or farmers. Below this there were melechas or outcastes to perform menial and unclean tasks.
Paradoxically, 'purity' became the enemy of hygiene, and Indian squalor was without parallel. The caste system provided job security and allocated economic functions in a stable fashion in a society with no church hierarchy 1 The changes which economic growth has brought to the traditional division of labour are described by O. Lewis, Village Life in Northern India, Random House, New York, 1958. 2 See A. Beteille, Castes Old and New, Asia Publishing House, Bombay, 1969, p. 115. 28 THE MOGHUL ECONOMY AND SOCIETY and an unstable political system.
Asia: Class Structure and Economic Growth: India and Pakistan Since the Moghuls by Angus Maddison