By J. R. Sokatch (Auth.)
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55, 774. , Kijimoto, S. and Okunuki, K. (1963). J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 53, 256. Yamanaka, T. and Okunuki, K. (1963). Biochem. Z. 338, 62. 4. OLIGOSACCHARIDE CATABOLISM Life on our planet continues because t h e elements of protoplasm become available for re-use by another generation of organisms by the action of saprophytic microorganisms. The carbon cycle begins with the production of sugars by green plants using energy from sunlight ; plants use the energy stored in sugars for growth and animals use it by feeding on the plants ; plants and animals die and microorganisms convert their complex structures partly to cell material and partly t o carbon dioxide thereby obtaining energy.
1927). Ann. Inst. Pasteur 41, 148. Levin, D. H. and Racker, E. (1959). J. Biol. Chem. 234, 2532. Littlefield, J . N. and Dunn, D. B. (1958). Biochem. J. 70, 642. , Buchana, B. B. and Rabinowitz, J. C. (1963). J. Biol. Chem. 238, 3899. Lundgren, D. , Schnaitman, C. and Marchessault, R. H. (1965). J. Bacteriol. 89, 245. Lynn, R. J. and Smith, P . F . (1960). Ann. Y. Acad. Sei. 79, 493. McQuillen, K. (1960). In "The Bacteria" (I. C. Gunsalus and R. Y. ). Academic Press, New York, Vol. I, p . 249.
Glycerol teichoic acid from L. casei (Kelemen and Baddiley, 1961). 40 BACTERIAL PHYSIOLOGY ΑΝΏ METABOLISM 3 . CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BACTERIA 41 glucose and the polymer is eight ribitol residues in length (Baddiley etal, 1962). C. COMPLEX POLYSACCHABIDES Cell walls of gram positive bacteria are complex polysaccharides composed of carbohydrates and amino acids. Methods used for the preparation of cell walls generally involve mechanical breakage of the cell, followed by differential centrifugation and washing of the cell walls (Salton, 1960).
Bacterial Physiology and Metabolism by J. R. Sokatch (Auth.)