By Charles Tanford
Benjamin Franklin used to be the 1st to record the phenomenon of oil's energy to nonetheless waters and to invest on why it occurred. A century later Lord Rayleigh played a similar test. Irving Langmuir did it with minor diversifications in 1917, and received a Nobel Prize for it. Then Langmuir's paintings used to be by means of a Dutch pediatrician's in 1925. p every one experimenter observed a bit extra within the outcome than his predecessor had noticeable, and the sciences of physics, chemistry and biology have all been illuminated via the paintings. p Charles Tanford displays at the evolving nature of technology and of person scientists. Recounting ideas in each one trial, he follows the vintage scan from Franklin's drawing room to our present-day institutionalized clinical institutions and speculates at the resulting adjustments in our method of clinical inquiry.
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Additional resources for Ben Franklin Stilled the Waves: An Informal History of Pouring Oil on Water with Reflections on the Ups and Downs of Scientific Life in General
Where was the leak? Who was the thief ? Was it Whately before he died? A witch-hunt was in progress, a man called John Temple was wrongly accused, and a duel took place between Temple and Whately’s brother William. Franklin was alarmed and wrote an open letter to the newspaper Public Advertiser, declaring that he alone was responsible for sending the letters, giving his logical reasons for doing so, but not revealing who gave the letters to him. The Massachusetts petition for removal of Hutchinson and Oliver was now brought before the Privy Council with dispatch, in January 1774.
The second problem was Pennsylvania’s status as a “proprietary colony,” not directly under control by the crown. As was mentioned earlier, much of the territory had been given by Charles II to William Penn in 1681, in payment for an old royal debt to Penn’s father, and all land that had not in the meantime been sold now belonged to his heirs, Thomas and Richard Penn. They were men of a very different stamp from William. William Penn had been a staunch Quaker, willing to suffer for his convictions.
Bands of unfriendly Indians raided outlying farms of German colonists, and killed their families or forced them to flee. Creation of an independent militia became a necessity, and taxes had to be imposed on the populace to meet the expenses. Taxation raises emotions at any time or place, but Pennsylvania had special problems which made the issue especially divisive. One problem was posed by the Quakers, then as now resolute pacifists. Though a minority in the population, they constituted a majority in the Assembly.
Ben Franklin Stilled the Waves: An Informal History of Pouring Oil on Water with Reflections on the Ups and Downs of Scientific Life in General by Charles Tanford