By Y.C. Fung
The idea of blood stream is the oldest and so much complex department of biomechanics, with roots extending again to Huangti and Aristotle, and with contributions from Galileo, Santori, Descartes, Borelli, Harvey, Euler, Hales, Poiseuille, Helmholtz, and so forth. It represents an important a part of humanity's idea of itself. This booklet offers chosen issues of this nice physique of principles from a ancient point of view, binding very important experiments including mathematical threads. The targets and scope of this ebook stay almost like within the first version: to give a remedy of circulatory biomechanics from the stand issues of engineering, body structure, and clinical technological know-how, and to improve the topic via a series of difficulties and examples. The identify is modified from Biodynamics: move to Biomechanics: movement to unify the ebook with its sister volumes, Biomechanics: Mechanical homes of dwelling Tissues, and Biomechanics: movement, circulate, rigidity, and development. the key adjustments made within the re-creation are the next: whilst the 1st version went to press in 1984, the query of residual pressure within the middle used to be raised for the 1st time, and the lung used to be the single organ analyzed at the foundation of sturdy morphologic info and constitutive equations. The specified research of blood move within the lung have been performed, however the physiological validation experiments had no longer but been completed.
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Extra info for Biomechanics: Circulation
E. of the particles that entered into the shaded area in the figure. E. E. E. in the shaded area at the left, which does not belong to the original group of fluid particles, and hence has to be subtracted. E. in the shaded area bounding the vessel wall. E. of the fluid particles in the vessel between stations 1 and 2. Let us translate this statement into a mathematical expression. Let us first identify the various rates listed in the equation above. First, the rate at which the pressure force acting on a small area dA does work on a fluid flowing across that surface with velocity u is equal to pudA, where u is the velocity component normal to the surface dA.
43 the orifice of the aortic valve. On the other hand, during systole, when the aortic valve is opened and its orifice is distended, the mitral valve is closed and reduced in area. 5 of the preceding chapter. We now review the mechanism in greater detail. The history of heart research must mention Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo (1452-1519) was born 126 years before Harvey (1578-1657).
4:1. The motion of the walls of the ventricles is mainly radial, and is larger at the left ventricle and smaller at the right ventricle. But the radial motion is accompanied by some shortening in the longitudinal direction. The fluid dynamics of blood ejection from the left and right ventricles into the aorta and the lung, respectively, must be analyzed by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, with the motions of the solid walls of the heart, the heart valves, the aorta, and the pulmonary arteries as boundary conditions.
Biomechanics: Circulation by Y.C. Fung