By E. Gwinner (auth.), Professor Dr. Eberhard Gwinner (eds.)
E. GWINNER! The phenomenon of chook migration with its huge scale dimensions has attracted the eye of naturalists for hundreds of years. around the globe billions of birds go away their breeding grounds each autumn emigrate to parts with seasonally extra desire capable stipulations. a lot of those migrants shuttle in basic terms over a number of hundred kilo meters yet others disguise distances reminiscent of the circumference of the earth. between those long-distance migrants are numerous billion birds that invade Africa each autumn from their West and important Palaearctic breeding components. within the Americas and in Asia the scope of chook migration is of an identical value. simply as striking because the numbers of birds are their achievements. they must take care of the big vigorous charges of long-distance flying. really whereas crossing oceans and deserts that don't enable replenishment of depleted fats reserves. they need to competently time the onset and finish of migrations. either on a regular and annual foundation. and at last. they need to orient their migratory activities in area to arrive their species- or population-specific wintering and breeding grounds, regardless of the variable weather conditions alongside their migratory routes.
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Additional info for Bird Migration: Physiology and Ecophysiology
Academic Press. London Guzman J. finus). when over the outer continental shelf of the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea during the northern summer (1975-76). In: Outer Cont Shelf Envir Assess Prog Fin Rep Prine Invest 54. pp 571-682 Haftorne S (1971) Norges fugler. U niversitetsforlaget. Trondheim Haila Y (1980) Delayed autumn migration of waterfowl in the northern Baltic. Ornis Fenn Suppl 3:41-43 Haila Y. Tiainen J. VepsaHiinen K (1986) Delayed autumn migration as an adaptive strategy of birds in northern Europe: evidence from Finland.
Bird Study 34: 155-159 Brassard G R (1971) The mosses of northern Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada. I. Ecology and phytogeography. with an analysis for the Queen Elizabeth Islands. Bryologist 74:233-281 Brooks WS (1915) Notes on birds from east Siberia and arctic Alaska. Bull Mus Comp Zool 59:361-413 Brown RG B, Nettleship ON (1981) The biological significance of polynyas to arctic colonial seabirds. In: Stirling I. Cleator H (eds) Polynyas in the Canadian Arctic. Can Wildl Serv Occas Pap45:59-66 Brown RG B, Nettleship ON.
1974 in Barry 1982). Thus, given our current understanding of long-distance bird migrations, the distribution and number of Pleistocene refugia. the possible existence of an ice-free corridor to Beringia, and climate and weather patterns in the Nearctic (especially wind patterns in the late Pleistocene). it is probable that many birds migrated to the Arctic throughout the Pleistocene. 1 Palearctic The first detailed studies of bird migration were conducted in Europe. C. Mortensen first attached tarsus bands to birds in 1890 and subsequently determined the migration routes of northern pintails (A nus acuta) and several other species that nest in the Old World Arctic (Jespersen and Taning 1950).
Bird Migration: Physiology and Ecophysiology by E. Gwinner (auth.), Professor Dr. Eberhard Gwinner (eds.)