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Chapter IL ARTERIAL AND ARTERIOLAR SYSTEMS: Biophysical Principles and Physiology D. BIOPHYSICAL PRINCIPLES By R. H. HAYNES 1 ; S. RODBARD2 1. R H E O L O G I C A L ( V I S C O U S ) P R O P E R T I E S O F B L O O D a. Anomalous viscosity and the circulatory system: The presence of the formed elements in blood, in particular the red cells, gives rise to its "anomalous," or non-Newtonian, viscous properties; that is, its viscosity depends on the flow rate (or rate of shear) and tube size as well as the hematocrit.
Where the pressure is low, as in the veins, the endothelial cells may be cuboidal, elliptical, or rounded. With the higher pressure in the arterial system, the greater compression of the endothelium is associated with its appearance as a very thin smooth lining of characteristically thin flat hexagons, whose long axes are aligned with the direction of blood flow. The form of the endothelial cells thus appears to be associated with the distending pressure and the direction of the flow of blood (Fig.
However, as pressure increases, flow through the opening does not rise proportionately, but only according to the square root of the pressure head. 2), a rise in pressure gradient to 100 mm Hg produces 38 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD only ten times as much flow. It can be seen that flow through an orifice does not keep pace with the rise in pressure gradient. This is an important consideration in flow through a stenotic segment, since an elevation in driving pressure may not result in an appropriately increased flow.
Blood Vessels and Lymphatics by Abramson