By Linda S. Costanzo PhD
- NEW! Full-color layout, circulate charts, illustrations, and tables that summarize details for handy review
- Each bankruptcy is written within the renowned Board overview Series (BRS) define structure and contours bolded key phrases to streamline your study
- Over 350 USMLE-style questions, solutions, and rationales either electronically and in print toughen your body structure review
- A FREE significant other web site bargains a web book and an interactive query financial institution with all of the questions from the e-book so that you can customise your assessment tests!
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Extra resources for BRS Physiology
B. Somatosensory system ■ includes the sensations of touch, movement, temperature, and pain. 1. Pathways in the somatosensory system a. Dorsal column system ■ ■ ■ processes sensations of fine touch, pressure, two-point discrimination, vibration, and proprioception. consists primarily of group II fibers. Course: primary afferent neurons have cell bodies in the dorsal root. Their axons ascend ipsilaterally to the nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus of the medulla. From the medulla, the second-order neurons cross the midline and ascend to the contralateral thalamus, where they synapse on third-order neurons.
2) Many rods synapse on a single bipolar cell. As a result, there is less acuity in the rods than in the cones. There is also greater sensitivity in the rods because light striking any one of the rods will activate the bipolar cell. d. Horizontal and amacrine cells form local circuits with the bipolar cells. e. Ganglion cells are the output cells of the retina. ■ Axons of ganglion cells form the optic nerve. 98761_Ch02_Chapter 02 5/7/10 6:32 PM Page 40 40 Board Review Series: Physiology Pigment cell layer Photoreceptor layer External limiting membrane Outer nuclear layer Outer plexiform layer Inner nuclear layer Bipolar cell Inner plexiform layer Direction of light Horizontal cell Amacrine cell Ganglion cell Ganglion cell layer Optic nerve layer Internal limiting membrane FIGURE 2-3 Cellular layers of the retina.
Hexamethonium) in the autonomic ganglia, but not at the neuromuscular junction. Mechanism of action: ACh binds to α subunits of the nicotinic ACh receptor. The nicotinic ACh receptors are also ion channels for Na+ and K+. b. Muscarinic receptors ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ are located in the heart (M2 ), smooth muscle (M3 ), and glands (M3 ). , decreased heart rate, decreased conduction velocity in AV node). , increased GI motility, increased secretion). are activated by ACh and muscarine. are blocked by atropine.
BRS Physiology by Linda S. Costanzo PhD