By D. Herzog
Tracing sexual violence in Europes 20th century from the Armenian genocide to Auschwitz and Algeria to Bosnia, this pathbreaking quantity expands army historical past to incorporate the world of sexuality. analyzing either tales of consensual romance and of intimate brutality, it additionally contributes major new insights to the background of sexuality.
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Additional info for Brutality and Desire: War and Sexuality in Europe's Twentieth Century (Genders and Sexualities in History)
168 40 Sexual Violence during Armenian Genocide Forced assimilation as a practical experience In reality, for an Armenian to go through the required motions of becoming a Turk did not mean that he or she at any point of time truly accepted ‘reprogramming’. That depended on various factors, age being seemingly the most important one: younger children tended to completely forget about native tongue, religion, and national or ethnic identity, while older Armenians tended to maintain at least parts of their ‘Armenianness’ and to remember the murder of their close relatives.
But she strongly insisted that Vahram should go with them, and the gendarme, wanting to win her favor, accepted it. 91 Sexual violence – means or end? , tactical or strategical, purpose. It is difﬁcult to state with certainty what the goal(s) were, as little is known of the overall, local, or individual motives for the sexual violence during the Armenian genocide. But considering the evidence at hand, and assuming that the executors were generally no different from executors of other mass crimes, the main purposes on a local and individual level are likely to have been sadism;93 gratiﬁcation by total domination; symbolic puriﬁcation (the exorcizing of ‘evil’ through rituals of degradation);94 ‘mutual demonstrations of masculinity’ in the cases of gang rape;95 and humiliation, intimidation, and dehumanization of the immediate victim, the victim’s male relatives, and of the Armenians as a group (the rape of women as the symbolic rape of a whole community),96 as most of the women and girls were killed after the abuse, committed suicide, died, or were at least expected to die during or after the deportations.
They were emaciated, sick, diseased, ﬁlthy, covered with dirt and vermin, resembling animals far more than human beings. They had been driven along for many weeks like herds of cattle, with little to eat, and most of them had nothing except the rags on their backs. When the scant rations which the Government furnished were brought for distribution the guards were obliged to beat them back with clubs, so ravenous were they. There were few men among them, most of the men having been killed by the Kurds before their arrival in Harput.
Brutality and Desire: War and Sexuality in Europe's Twentieth Century (Genders and Sexualities in History) by D. Herzog